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ISO-DIN-ASTM Cross Reference Chart
ASTM D-92 "Flash
and Fire Points by Cleveland Open Cup"
This method is intended for fluids having a flash point of 79°C (175°F) and above. A fixed volume of fluid is heated at a uniform rate while open to the atmosphere at its surface. A small flame is passed over the surface at uniform temperature increments to determine the point at which vapors ignite (Flash Point). At a somewhat higher temperature self sustained burning for at least 5 seconds determines the Fire Point.
ASTM D-93 "Flash
Point by Pensky-Martens Closed Cup Tester"
This method is intended for fluids having a flash point from 40°C to 360°C. A fixed volume of fluid is heated at a uniform rate with stirring in an enclosed cup. A small flame is introduced at uniform temperature increments into the vapors above the fluid through an opening in the cover which closes automatically upon withdrawal of the flame. The temperature at which a brief ignition occurs is the Flash Point.
ASTM D-128 "Analysis
of Lubricating Grease"
This test will analyze conventional greases consisting of petroleum oils and soaps for unsaponifiable matter, water, free alkalinity, free fatty acid, fat, glycerin, and insolubles. A supplementary test will analyze greases which are insoluble in conventional solvents, contain non-petroleum fluids, and/or non-soap type thickeners. Follow-up analysis of the separated components by other methods such as ICP metals or Infrared spectrograph may be requested.
ASTM D-130 ASTM
"Detection of Copper Corrosion from Petroleum
Products by the Copper Strip Tarnish Test"
A variety of hydrocarbon products including oils, hydraulic fluids, fuel, solvents, etc., can be tested for corrosivity to copper by use of this test. It is limited to products with Ried Vapor pressure no greater than 18 psi (124 kPa). A polished copper strip is immersed in the fluid and heated for a specified time and temperature after which the corrosion is rated by visual comparison to the ASTM Copper Strip Corrosion Standards. The most typical test run is for 24 hours @ 100°C. However, time and temperature can vary according to product type and specification. Results are reported as a number followed by a letter according to the following scheme:
|1 slight tarnish||a light orange, almost the same as a freshly polished strip|
|b dark orange|
|2 moderate tarnish||a claret red|
|c multi colored with lavender blue or silver, or both, overlaid on claret red|
|e brassy or gold|
|3 dark tarnish||a magenta overcast on brassy strip|
|b multi colored with red and green showing (peacock), but no gray|
|4 corrosion||a transparent black, dark gray or brown with peacock green barley showing|
|b graphite or lusterless black|
|c glossy or jet black|
ASTM D-149 "Dielectric
Breakdown Voltage and Dielectric Strength of Insulating Materials"
The ability of a lubricant to resist electrical flow and current potential can be determined with this test. The dielectric strength is the ratio of the thickness of the insulating material in mils versus the potential of the breakdown voltage. The breakdown voltage is the electrical potential required to overcome the material’s insulating ability. These electrical properties can determine if a material is appropriate for use in a particular electrical application.
Loss (Dissipation Factor) and Dielectric Constant (Permittivity) of
The ability of a lubricant to act as an electrical insulator can be measured using this test procedure. Since no insulator is perfect, the amount of electrical leakage (Dissipation Factor) will determine the degree of efficiency of insulating ability. The Dielectric Constant is a measure of
the insulator's ability to resist electrical flow under increasing frequency. Together these properties help predict how the material will perform under various conditions of electrical exposure.
ASTM D-189 "Conradson
Carbon Residue of Petroleum Products"
This method is intended to measure the coke-forming propensity of oils under extreme temperatures causing cracking and pyrolysis. The sample is placed in a crucible and heated to evaporate and reduce the material to a coke-residue or 'carbon residue'. Ash-forming additives can give an erroneous indication of coke-forming tendencies by adding to the weight of residue formed. Carbon residue is a useful guide in the manufacture of base oils and finished lubricants. Results differ from those obtained by ASTM D-524.
Gravity of Crude Petroleum and Petroleum Products (Hydrometer Method)"
API Gravity is a special function of relative density (specific gravity) 60/60°F (15.56/15.56°C) represented by:
ASTM D-482 "Ash
Content from Petroleum Products"
This method determines ash in the range 0.001 to 0.180 mass %. It is applicable to fuels, oils, waxes and other petroleum products which do not contain ash-forming additives. The sample required is according to the following:
Expected Ash, mass% 0.18 0.10 0.05 0.04 0.02 0.01 0.001
Test Specimen mass, grams 9 20 40 50 100 100 100
Products containing ash forming additive should be tested according to ASTM D-874 (Sulfated Ash).
"Ramsbottom Carbon Residue of Petroleum Products"
This test measures the coke-forming propensity of oils under extreme temperatures causing cracking and pyrolysis. The sample is placed in a glass bulb and heated in a furnace at 550°C for 20 minutes to evaporate and reduce the material to a coke residue or 'carbon residue'. Ash forming additives can give erroneous indication of coke-forming tendencies by adding to the weight of residue formed. Carbon residue is a useful guide in the manufacture of oils and finished lubricants. Results differ from those obtained by ASTM D-189.
D-566 ASTM D-2265 "Dropping
Point of Lubricating Grease"
A sample of grease is heated in the drop point cup until the sample melts or separates and runs out a small hole in the bottom of the cup. This test may indicate the temperature at which a change in state may be anticipated under similar operating conditions.
ASTM D-611 "Aniline
Point and Mixed Aniline Point of Petroleum Products and Hydrocarbon Solvents"
The Aniline Point is the lowest temperature at which equal parts of aniline and oil are completely miscible. It is an indicator of the quantity of aromatic hydrocarbons in the oil and is useful in predicting an oil’s compatibility with natural or synthetic rubber. Aromatic compounds in an oil may cause some components of rubber to leach out, thereby weakening the rubber. Only oils with low aniline numbers are usually considered for natural rubber applications. In this test, equal amounts of aniline and sample are blended and heated to obtain a clear solution. The mixture slowly cools. The temperature at which cloudiness first appears is reported as the aniline point.
ASTM D-892 "Foaming
Characteristics of Lubricating Oils"
This method measures the tendency of an oil to foam by aerating a fixed volume of oil at a fixed flow rate of air through a gas diffuser submerged in oil. The volume of foam after 5 minutes aeration and the volume of foam after 10 minutes settling are recorded. Sequence I, II and III are performed at 24°C (75°F), 93.5°C (200°F) and 24°C (75°F) respectively. After the foam collapses from Sequence II, the same aliquot is tested in Sequence III. This is done to address concerns associated with agitation, dispersion of anti-foaming agents, and possible presence of volatiles which can effect results. Sequence IV is a special procedure for Mercon Transmission Fluid with increased flow rate and temperature.
Note: Foam is not entrained air. See ASTM D-3427 Air Release Properties.
ASTM D-972 "Evaporation
Loss of Lubricating Grease and Oils"
This method determines loss in mass of a grease or oil by passing heated air over the weighed sample for a fixed time (typically 22 hrs.). Because the air is heated by passing through a fixed length of tubing immersed in the same oil bath as the test cell, the actual temperature which the sample is subject to is less than the test temperature. The differential is significant (8, 10, 12°F or more) depending on test temperature. The highest test temperature is limited by the use of an oil bath (typically 300°F).
ASTM D-1092 "Measuring
Apparent Viscosity of Lubricating Greases"
Stationary grease requires pressure to start flowing. Once movement begins, a different amount of pressure, usually (but not always) less, is required to keep it flowing. Viscosity is defined as the resistance to flow of a substance. Since a moving grease usually shows less resistance to flow than a stationary one, its viscosity appears to change as the shear rate changes, thus grease is a non-Newtonian fluid. The viscosity of grease observed when the grease is flowing, the “apparent viscosity”, is determined in this method. For the apparent viscosity of engine oils, consider ASTM D-4684 “Determination of Yield Stress and Apparent Viscosity of Engine Oils at Low Temperature”. For pumpability tests, please consider DIN 51805 “Kesternich Flow Pressure” and K 95400 “Lincoln Ventmeter” In this test, grease is packed into a large cylinder, which is fitted at one end with a nozzle and the other with a hydraulic piston. Pressure is applied to the hydraulic piston, which causes the grease to exit through the nozzle. When the grease is flowing steadily, the pressure is recorded, and the apparent viscosity and shear rate are calculated. Eight different nozzle diameters are tested. The report includes a graph of apparent viscosity in poise versus shear rate in seconds-1, and the data used to generate the graph. When requesting this test, please specify the test temperature.
"Acidity of Hydrocarbon Liquids and Their Distillation
Acidic or basic components are extracted with water and a qualitative determination is made by using Methyl Orange or Phenolphthalein indicator. Methyl Orange changes color at pH 3.2 to 4.4. Phenolphthalein changes color at pH 8.2 to 10.0. The method is intended to give an indication of the presence or absence or residual mineral acids or bases left over from the refining or manufacturing process of oils.
D-1159 "Bromine Numbers of Petroleum
Distillates and Commercial Aliphatic Olefins by Electrometric Titration"
The sample is titrated with bromide-bromate solution until a sudden change in potential due to free bromine signals the end point. Bromine number is reported as grams of bromine that will react with 100 grams of sample. It is useful as a measure of aliphatic unsaturation in petroleum samples and can be used in conjunction with Annex A2 of the method to calculate an estimate of olefin percentage in distillates boiling up to 315°C. It is also an aid in establishing purity and identity of commercial aliphatic mono olefins. The method is not satisfactory for normal alpha-oleins. ASTM D-2710 gives more accurate results for petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures with Bromine Number 0.5 to 1.0 for Bromine Numbers less than 0.5 ASTM D-2710 must be used. Also, where Bromine number is less that 0.5, a comparable value, Bromine Index, can be obtained by ASTM Methods D-1492 and D-5776 for Aromatic hydrocarbons.
"Determining The Water Washout Characteristics
Of Lubricating Greases"
A standard ABEC 6204 test bearing is packed with 4 grams of the grease to be tested. The
bearing is rotated at 600 rpm in the water spray chamber at 100°F (or 175°F) for one hour. 300
mls of water per minute are sprayed at the bearing assembly. The percent weight loss of the
grease carried away with the water is reported. This test is a relative measure of a grease's ability
to resist removal by water.
ASTM D-1298 IP160/92 "Density,
Relative Density (Specific Gravity), or API Gravity of Crude Petroleum
and Liquid Petroleum Products by Hydrometer Method"
This method covers the determination of each mass - volume relationship using a glass hydrometer. Definitions for the three different values are as follows:
|Density||(for this method) is the mass (weight in vacuo) of liquid at 15°C. Values are|
|reported as kilograms per litre at 15°C|
|Relative Density||(specific gravity) for this method is the ratio of the mass of a given volume of liquid|
|at 15°C (60°F) to the mass of an equal volume of water at the same temperature, hence the reporting of values in the following manner - (Specific Gravity) 60/60°F.|
|API Gravity||a special function of relative density (specific gravity) 60/60°F, represented by:|
|API Gravity, deg = (141.5/sp gr 60/60°F) - 131.5|
Separability of petroleum Oils and Synthetic Fluids"
This method measures the ability of oil and water to separate. 40 ml of oil and 40 ml of water are mixed at test temperature and separation in ml is observed at 5 minute intervals until the emulsion reduces to 3 ml or less. Oils with viscosity at 40°C from 28.8 to 90 cSt. are tested at 54°C. Oils with viscosity at 40°C greater than 90 cSt. are tested at 82°C. A completely different method ASTM D-2711 is available for medium to high viscosity oils which employs more vigorous mixing.
"Cone Penetration of Lubricating Grease using one-quarter and one-half
This test is intended to give the same information as ASTM D-217 “Cone Penetration of Lubricating Grease”, using a smaller sample size. Although less precise than ASTM D-217, this method is intended for use when only a small amount of sample is available. Depending on the quantity of sample available, the cone may be either one-half scale (50 grams of sample) or one-quarter scale (10 grams of sample). This test measures the depth, in tenths of a millimeter, to which a one-half scale or a one-quarter scale standard cone will sink when allowed to fall according to the method. The predicted full scale penetration value is calculated and reported. When requesting this test, please let us know if you wish a one-quarter scale or a one-half scale cone, and a worked or unworked penetration. Also please let us know if you wish any deviations from the ASTM method, such as a temperature other than 25ºC.
ASTM D-1478 "Low
Temperature Torque of Ball Bearing Grease"
The torque resulting from grease lubricated ball bearings rotated at one rpm is measured. The test is designed for temperatures 0°F (-20°C) and below. Torques greater than 35,000 g-cm (3.5 N-m) are considered to be technically frozen. Most military grease specifications consider 10,000 g-cm (1 N-m) to be the maximum usable limit for adequate lubrication at low temperatures. Test temperatures to -73°C can be accommodated.
ASTM D-1481 "Density
and Relative Density (Specific Gravity) of Viscous Materials by Lipkin
Basically this is a glass capillary calibrated for volume which can be used to make determinations at a variety of temperatures using a suitable oven or liquid bath. See ASTM D-1298 for definitions of Density and Specific Gravity (Relative Density).
Color of Petroleum Products (ASTM Color Scale)"
Color is often used as a control on product quality. This method determines color by visual comparison to glass standards ranging in value from 0.5 to 8.0. When an exact match is not found, the higher number is reported. Saybolt Color by ASTM D-156 is appropriate for oils lighter than ASTM Color 0.5.
Protection by Metal Preservatives in the Humidity Cabinet"
This method provides a means for measuring the relative performance of an oil to prevent rusting of steel under conditions of high humidity. Various specifications typically call for multiples of either sandblasted or polished (240 grit aluminum oxide) test panels. After surface preparation and cleaning the panels are dipped in the oil sample, then drained for 2 hours before placing them in the test chamber maintained at 120°F for the specified exposure time. Pass/fail criteria for the significant area of the test panels (which excludes a portion of the edges) are as follows:
|Pass:||A test surface shall pass if it contains no more than three dots of rust, no one of which is|
|larger than 1 mm in diameter.|
|Fail:||A test surface shall fail if it contains one or more dots of rust larger than 1 mm in diameter or|
|if it contains four or more dots of any size.|
"Roll Stability of Lubricating Grease"
A 50 gram sample of the test grease is subjected to shearing under a 5 kg roller at 175 rpm for 2 hours. The degree of shearing is determined by measuring the worked penetration (ASTM D-1403) on the original grease sample vs. the sheared grease sample. The relative resistance to shearing can be determined with this test method.
Stability of Hydraulic Oils"
Cincinnati Milacron Thermal Stability - Procedure A
This test is intended to measure the thermal stability of hydraulic oils. Copper and steel rods are placed together in the oil which is heated to 135°C for one week. The condition of the metal specimens is reported according to the Cincinnati Milacron color chart, total sludge in mg/100 ml oil, and viscosity change can also be reported.
ASTM D-2273 "Trace
Sediment in Lubricating Oils"
The amount of naphtha-insoluble sediment in a lubricating oil that can be separated by centrifuging is determined. A 50/50 mix of naphtha and oil is centrifuged a an RCF 600-700 and the volume percent of sediment is reported to the nearest 0.001. Oil soluble material may be present which is insoluble in naphtha and can cause erroneously high results.
ASTM D-2500 "Cloud
This test method is applicable only to products which are transparent when viewed through 40 mm of sample. The sample is cooled in a pour point tube and the temperature at which cloud formation occurs is noted. The temperature at which wax formation or crystallization occurs is an indicator of useful low temperature limits in some cases.
"Evaporation Loss of Lubricating Greases and Oils"
Although not yet written as an oil test method. This apparatus eliminates the limitations of ASTM D-972 by employing an aluminum block for heating the test cell and an air preheater so that the sample is subject to air at the same temperature as the test temperature.
ASTM D-2596 "Measurement
of Extreme Pressure Properties of Lubricating Grease"
The extreme pressure properties, Load Carrying Capacity, of greases uses the Shell 4-Ball Extreme Pressure Test Machine. A rotating upper ball is loaded against three stationary lower balls. The initial loads are low and exhibit elastohydrodynamic properties. As loads increase beyond E.H.P., the lubricant passes through the high pressure boundary film region. At the highest load the lubricant can stand the boundary film is lost and welding occurs. This test is very good at comparing the extreme pressure and boundary lubrication properties of comparative samples or competitive types of formulations. The Load Wear Index Value, Last Non Seizure, Last Seizure and Weld Load are reported.
"Hydrolytic Stability of Hydraulic Fluids (Beverage Bottle Method)"
Fluids which are unstable to water under conditions of the test form corrosive acidic and insoluble contaminants. 75 g of fluid, 25 g of water, and a polished copper strip are sealed in a bottle then placed in a 200°F (93°C) oven and rotated end for end at 5 rpm for 48 hrs. Reported values are Acid Number Change, Total Acidity of Water, Weight Change and Appearance of Copper Strip, and can also include Total Sediment Weight.
(A or B) "Endurance (wear) Life and
Load Carrying Capacity of Solid Film Lubricants (Falex Pin and Vee Method)"
Two stationary blocks are held against a rotating steel test pin. The load applied and the rotational torque resulting is recorded.
Procedure A is the Endurance Test which is run under 1000 lbs. load and the time to failure reported.
Procedure B is the Load Carrying Test which is run under incrementally increasing loads and the maximum load obtained is reported.
or B) "Measuring Wear Properties of Fluid
Lubricants (Falex Pin & Vee Method)"
Two stationary V-Blocks are held against a rotating steel pin at a specified load corresponding to 3.3 mm indentation value from the apparatus calibration data. The tooth position of the loading ratchet mechanism is noted at the beginning and the end of the test period. The change in tooth number is reported as the tooth wear.
"Demulsibility Characteristics of Lubricating Oils"
This test measures the ability of oil and water to separate. The Procedure A for oils which do not contain extreme pressure (EP) additives uses 405 ml of oil and 45 ml of water with a stirrer speed of 4500 rpm. The Procedure B for oils which contain EP additives uses 360 ml of oil and 90 ml of water with a stirrer speed of 2500 rpm. In both procedures the oil and water are stirred for 5 minutes at 82°C, followed by 5 hours of settling after which oil in water, free water, and emulsion are determined and reported in ml. This method is intended for testing medium to high velocity oils. ASTM D-1401 is a completely different method to measure 'water separatibility'. Mixing is less vigorous and oils of various viscosities and types can be tested.
ASTM D-2783 "Measurement
of Extreme Pressure Properties of Lubricating Fluids (Four Ball Method)"
Three 1/2 inch 52100 steel balls are locked into a pot containing the fluid which is forced against a fourth rotating ball (1800 rpm) at increasing loads and run for 10 seconds. The wear scars on the stationary balls are measured and the load is increased until lubrication breaks down completely causing the balls to weld together (Weld Load). By mathematical treatment of the scar sizes at the increasing loads an indexing value which characterizes the load carrying capacity of the fluid is obtained and reported as the Load Wear Index (LWI) along with the Weld Load. Most fluids exhibit a load at which metal to metal contact is minimal and the amount of wear produced on the basis of scar diameter is no more than 5% greater than the impression diameter (the plastic deformation of the balls under point contact load without turning the machine on). This is termed as the 'Last Non-Siezure Load'. Greater loads which are termed 'Seizure load' typically produce much larger scars with scoring due to heavy metal to metal contact. The Last Non-Siezure Load is sometimes of interest for comparative purposes as well as an indicator of the upper limits of transition from elastohydrodynamic to boundary modes of lubrication in terms of the test conditions. If desired, the Last Non Seizure Load and scar size can be reported as well as the Last Seizure Load and scar (Load just prior to the Weld Load).
ASTM D-2878 "Estimating
Apparent Vapor Pressures and Molecular Weights of Lubricating Oils"
The method utilizes evaporation loss data obtained from ASTM D-972 and calculations based upon a standard pure substance (m-terphenyl) to obtain apparent molecular weight and vapor pressure. Test time and temperature are selected to give an evaporation of 5.0% ± 1%. This procedure minimizes the effect of low concentrations of low molecular weight material or volatile impurities. The molecular weight is required for the calculations and can be obtained with an evaporation run at 400°F, but only if 5% can be evaporated in a reasonable length of time. Alternately, molecular weight obtained from ASTM D-2503 or equivalent can be used and may be preferable if oxidation at 400°F is of concern.
"Base Number of Petroleum Products by Potentiometric Perchloric Acid Titration"
This test quantitatively determines the basic constituents, both organic and inorganic, expressed as mg KOH/g. Results are obtained graphically by inflection point. Reserve alkalinity is sometimes used as a measure of additive depletion.
ASTM D-2983 "Low
Temperature Viscosity of Automotive Fluid Lubricants Measured by Brookfield
Although this particular ASTM method details use of the Brookfield Viscometer at temperatures from -5°C to -40°C for a particular range of products, there are many specifications and other methods which require its use to obtain viscosity data under other conditions and also at increased sample temperatures. Values obtained are expressed in centipoise (cP) or millipascal seconds (mPa·s). Shear rates are relatively low but non-Newtonian behavior of many samples, especially at low temperatures, makes selection of spindle and speed (shear rate) critical when comparing data. Non-Newtonian behavior makes cooling rates and soak times important factors as well. In the case of D-2983 cooling rate is specified with a 16 hour soak time and values obtained range from 1,000 to 1,000,000 cP.
ASTM D-3233 "Measurement
of Extreme Pressure Properties of Fluid Lubricants
(Falex Pin and Vee Block Methods)"
This test measures the load carrying ability of an oil. The tribological aspects are low speed, line contact, steel on steel (this can be altered), sliding motion. A 1/4 inch (6.35 mm) diameter test journal or pin is rotated at 290 rpm between two Vee Blocks immersed in the oil preheated to 120°F (51.7°C). Procedure A employs a constant increase in load applied by an automatic ratchet until failure as indicated by seizure of the test coupon or rapid loss of load caused by excessive wear. Procedure B employs load increments of 250 lbs with running for 1 minute at each increment until failure. The standard test pin is AISI 3135 Steel, HRB 87 and the standard Vee Blocks are AISI C-1137 Steel, HRC 20 to 24. Test coupons of different metals and alloys are available at additional expense.
of Carbon Distribution and Structural Group Analysis of Petroleum Oils
by the n-d-M Method"
Carbon distribution and ring content data are used in characterization of oils in the refining-manufacturing process and can also correlate to critical performance properties. Refractive Index, Density and Molecular Weight (n-d-M) are used to calculate the following values:
|% CA||Percentage of Aromatic Carbon|
|% CN||Percentage of Naphthenic Carbon|
|% Cp||Percentage of paraffinic Carbon|
|RA||Average Number of aromatic rings per Molecule|
|RN||Average Number of naphthene rings per Molecule|
|RT||Average Number of rings per Molecule|
|Refractive Index (n)||ASTM D-1218|
|Density at 20°C (d)||ASTM D-1480 or D-1481|
|Average Molecular Weight (M)||ASTM D-2502 or D-2503|
|Sulfur Content (mass %)||ASTM D-1552 or D-2622|
ASTM D-3336 "Life
of Lubricating Greases in Ball Bearings at Elevated Temperatures"
The test evaluates the endurance life of greases in ball bearings at high speeds and high temperatures. An SAE No. 204 Bearing in rotated at 10,000 rpm at test temperatures of 250°F to 400°F depending on the grease type. Navy type spindles (Pope Machinery Corp.) have a thrust load of 5 pounds and a radial load of 5 pounds applied to the bearing. The test cycle is closed 20 hours on and 4 hours off for the test temperature above 300°F and 22 1/2 hours on and 2 1/2 hours off for the test 300°F and below. The test result is the number of cumulative hours the bearing will run without exceeding the motor over-load set point, torque overload set point, or over temperature limit.
"Air Release Properties of Petroleum Oils"
This method measures the ability of an oil to separate entrained gas. Oils with viscosity at 40°C of less than 9.0 cSt. are tested at 25°C. Oils with viscosity at 40°C between 9.0 and 90.0 cSt. are tested at 50°C. Oils with viscosity at 40°C greater than 90.0 cSt. are tested at 75°C. Subsequent to aeration under test conditions, the time in minutes for entrained gas to reduce to 0.2% by volume is measured and reported. The method is closely related to DIN 51381 with a slight difference in procedure and reporting format.
ASTM D-3524 "Diesel
Fuel Diluent in Used Diesel Engine Oils by Gas Chromatography"
Excessive fuel dilution is an obvious concern. Best accuracy is obtained by submitting a sample of new oil for use as a baseline.
ASTM D-3525 "Gasoline
Diluent in Used Engine Oils by Gas Chromatography"
Some fuel dilution is normal but excessive fuel dilution is an obvious concern.
ASTM D-3527 "Life
Performance of Automotive Wheel Bearing Greases"
The high temperature life performance of automotive front wheel bearing greases is determined. A modified automotive type front wheel spindle and hub assembly is rotated at 1000 rpm and 160°C through 20 hours on and 4 hours off operating cycles. Grease life is determined by the measured increase in resistance to rotation that occurs as the sample degrades. The number of cumulative hours of running time that accumulate before over-load terminates the test is reported.
the Borderline Pumping Temperature of Engine Oil"
The Borderline Pumping Temperature (BPT) is a measure of the lowest temperature at which an engine oil can be continuously and adequately supplied to the inlet of the engine's oil pump. A Mini-Rotary Viscometer (MRV) is employed using a non linear cooling curve during a 16 hour period. Apparent viscosity in centipoise and yield-stress are both determined in terms of the test. The higher temperature of two failure modes is reported as BPT. The failure mode based on yield stress is termed 'air binding'. The failure mode based on apparent viscosity is termed 'Flow-Limiting'.
"Determining the Resistance of Lubricating Grease to Water Spray"
A steel panel is coated with a thin layer of the grease to be tested. A 40 psi water spray is directed at the grease coated panel for 5 minutes. The amount of grease lost to the water spray is reported as the percent spray off.
ASTM D-4170 "Fretting
Wear Protection by Lubricating Greases"
Two thrust type bearings lubricated with grease are loaded to 550 pounds force and oscillated through a 12° arc at 1800 cycles per minute for 22 hours at room temperature. The fretting wear is the average weight loss of the two bearings. The fretting wear requirement for ASTM D-4950 greases is 10 mg loss maximum.
"Compatibility of Lubricating Grease with Elastomers"
The compatibility of elastomers NBR-L and CR are measured at standard times and temperatures for swelling under exposure to the sample. This test may be modified to use different types of rubber, and other times and temperatures. This test evaluates compatibility with seals, gaskets, hoses, and other elastomer parts.
ASTM D-4290 "Determining
the Leakage Tendencies of Automotive Wheel Bearing Greases Under Accelerated
The leakage of grease and oil from grease lubricated wheel bearings in the determined. A modified automotive type front wheel spindle and hub assembly is rotated at 1000 rpm for 20 hours at 160°C. The separated grease and oil is captured in a collector and weighed. The weight loss from the standard sample charge of 60 grams is reported.
ASTM D-4627 "Iron
Chip Corrosion for Water - Dilutable Metalworking Fluids"
Cast iron chips are placed on a filter paper in a petri dish containing a fluid and allowed to stand for 20 to 24 hours at room temperature. Dilutions by weight % as follows are tested (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 5, 7 and 10%) The weakest concentration which results is no rust stain on the filter paper is defined as the 'breakpoint'.
ASTM D-4636FTM-5307FTM-5308 "Corrosiveness
and Oxidation Stability of Hydraulic Oils, Aircraft Turbine Engine Lubricants,
and Other Highly Refined Oils"
This ASTM Method describes Federal Test Methods 5307 and 5308. The configuration of the test cell, metal specimens, and arrangement is different for each method. FTM-5307 uses small washer shaped metal specimens arranged vertically between glass pacers. FTM-5308 uses 1"x1" square metal specimens tied together in a specific arrangement placed in the bottom of the glass test cell or tube. Metal test specimens may or may not be included and the number and type of metal specimens can also vary according to specifications. Briefly, the oil sample is placed in the test cell with the polished metal samples and heated in an oil bath or aluminum block for a specified time and temperature with dried or moist air (usually dried) bubbled through at a given flow rate. Acid number is sometimes monitored by periodic sampling. Values reported at test end include sample mass loss, viscosity change, acid number change, mass loss of metal specimens, appearance of oil and test cell, and volume percent sludge. Oxidized oil and sludge samples are sometimes analyzed for metals content.
"Low Temperature Torque of Grease Lubricated Wheel Bearings"
The torque resulting from grease lubricated tapered roller bearings rotating at one rpm is measured. The test uses an automotive type front wheel hub and spindle assembly. The assembly is cold soaked for 5 hours at -40°C. The torque is measured for 60 seconds of running time. The torque maximum at the beginning of the run and the stable torque after 60 seconds are reported. A graphic representation of the run is presented to visually compare data between samples. Values less than 15 N-m torque are considered adequately mobile for wheel bearing applications. Test temperatures from -20°C to -55°C can also be accommodated.
ASTM D-4739 "Base
Number Determination by Potentiometric Titration"
The titrant in this method is hydrochloric acid. This test quantitatively determines the basic constituents, both organic and inorganic, expressed as mg KOH/g. Results are obtained graphically by inflection point. Reserve alkalinity is sometimes used as a measure of additive depletion.
ASTM D-6184 FTM-321 IP-121 Bul
5A2 (A.3) "Oil
Separation from Lubricating Grease"
The bleeding of oil from grease under static conditions and elevated temperatures is measured. Temperatures from 150°F to 450°F can be used. 30 hours is the usual test period but may be extended or shortened as necessary. The tendency of oil to separate either during storage or when idle in a hot bearing can be an important property. This test can distinguish between greases that will either promote or prevent oil separation according to the demands of the application. API Bulletin 5A2 (A.3) substitutes a nickel cone with 1.0 mm holes for the wire screen used in ASTM D-6184 and FTM-321. This technique may simulate oil losses expected through the grease seals typically used on machines and tools used in 'Lubricated for Life' bearings.
"Evaluating Compatibility of Binary Mixtures of Lubricating Grease"
This method is a protocol for determining the range and variety of test which may be employed to determine the compatibility of various mixtures of greases under selected conditions. The supplier and user agree as to the values to be tested.
ASTM D-6793 "Bulk
The compressibility of a fluid is termed Bulk Modulus and is the unit volume change per unit volume of sample at the selected pressure. The compressibility of a fluid changes with pressure and temperature. In the case of Mil-H-83282, measurement of Bulk Modulus is taken at 40°C between 1,000 and 10,000 psi. The value is useful for fluid specifications in hydraulic systems. Specification requirements for Mil-H-83282 have a minimum value of 1.379 x 106 kPa.
ASTM E-659 ASTM
Temperature of Liquid Chemicals"
(ASTM D-2155 is an older method for AIT which ASTM has discontinued. It utilizes a smaller reaction vessel and can give slightly different results than ASTM E-659)
When heated, some materials can form vapors that react with atmospheric oxygen to spontaneously combust or “autoignite” - no ignition source is needed. The lowest temperature at which this happens is the autoignition temperature (AIT). This test measures AITs up to 600oC. There is a delay time between the sample reaching the AIT and combustion occurring. This is also determined in this test. A flask is heated to the test temperature. A small quantity of sample is injected into the flask and observed to see if ignition occurs. If it does not, the flask is cleaned and the process is repeated at a higher temperature. When autoignition is observed, the temperature, delay time and barometric pressure are reported.
Loss of Lubricating Greases and Oils"
This apparatus extends the highest test temperature limit by employing an aluminum block for the test cell but maintains the same heated tubing for air with similar temperature differentials as mentioned in ASTM D-972.
This test, also called the Navy Gear Wear, uses a 1.1 cm brass gear engaging a 1.2 cm steel gear at right angles. The reciprocal motion of the gears results in a measure of the lubricants ability to protect the metals under dynamic load. The test is run under 5 pounds load for 6000 cycles and under 10 pounds load for 3000 cycles. The weight loss of the brass gear is reported. This is the only inexpensive gear type test machine still available to test both greases and oils.
The Dirt Count of the sample is the number of foreign particles between 25 and 75 microns per milliliter of sample, and particles greater than 75 microns per milliliter of sample. Clean greases usually have less than 1000 particles/cc between 25 and 75 microns and none greater that 75 microns.
This federal test method is a microscope procedure for characterizing the particulates in oils according to size range and count. Characterization of particles visually according to appearance in terms of conformation, color, reflectivity, fibrous, etc., can yield much more information than that obtained from automatic particle counters. In cases of dispute FTM-3009 is often chosen as the referee method.
Disulfide Content - Non-Soap Greases"
This test is a chemical assay method for molybdenum disulfide. MoS2 is used to enhance extreme pressure properties of many lubricants. It has been experimentally determined that if the MoS2 is present in specifically determined amounts, the reliability of the lubricant can be assured without the need for exhaustive extreme pressure testing by machines. Other methods for determining the concentration of molybdenum such as A.A. or I.C.P. are difficult and subject to wide error because of poor adaptability within typical matrix systems.
of Grease to Fuel"
A class of greases referred to as "valve plug lubricants" are what this test method was developed for. The lubricant should be able to adhere to the valve of a typical fuel supply line without being carried away by the flow of fuel. The adhesion is measured in the static part of the test where an
aluminum strip is coated with the material and then exposed to "fuel" for 8 hours. The material should not deteriorate or lose its adhesion to the test metal. The dynamic part of the test measures the material's resistance to being dissolved by the flow of fuel. The material is agitated in the fuel and the percent of solubility is determined.
"Resistance of Grease to Water and Ethanol Solutions"
Greases which are formulated of highly polar components may be unacceptable in applications
which expose them to the actions of polar solvents. A water pump lubricant exposed to water-
antifreeze solutions is one example. To determine the material's resistance to this exposure this
test method exposes a grease sample to static immersion in water and water ethanol mixtures for
one week. After exposure there should be no deterioration of the grease.
Hertz Load of Extreme Pressure Lubricants"
The Mean Hertz load is the original basis of the ASTM D-2596 Load Wear Index test. By using mathematical models for the relationship between the hertz line, the contact area of the specimen balls under load, and the compensation load line, the elastohydrodynamic lubrication boundary, the ASTM D-2596 and ASTM D-2783 yield the same values. There appears to be no advantage to the more costly and time consuming FTM-6503 technique.
D-6138 DIN51802 "Determination
of Corrosion Prevention Properties of Lubricating Greases Under Dynamic
Wet Conditions - EMCOR Test"
This is a dynamic resistance test for grease using a double row self-aligning ball bearing. Distilled water, or any concentration of salt water may be used. The test is a more severe bearing test than than ASTM D-1743.
Steel Method Mobility of Grease"
The flow properties of greases through a capillary at 150 psi and the selected test temperature is measured. The purpose of this test is to assure that pressurized grease lubricated systems will remain supplied with lubricant even under low temperature conditions. Temperatures from 25°C to -40°C can be tested. It has been experimentally determined that flow rates of less than 0.001 grams per second are technically frozen. Engineers may design systems to accommodate flow rates at selected temperatures based on this data.
"Bethlehem Steel Combo Test Parts A & B"
Part A of the Combo Test measures the original ASTM D-1403 Unworked Penetration, Worked Penetration and ASTM D-4049 Water Spray Off values. The sample is emulsified with water using Bethlehem Steel Test LT-18. The emulsified sample is tested for ASTM D-1403 Worked Penetration and ASTM D-4049 Water Spray off. The change from the original is reported.
Part B of the Combo Test uses the ASTM D-1831 Roll Stability test on the emulsified sample from Part A at 200°F with extra water added for two hours. The additional emulsification and change in ASTM D-1403 Worked Penetration from the original samples are calculated.
PLTL-78 FTIR "Fourier
Transformed Infrared Spectrograph"
Basically this is an absorbance or transmittance spectrum based on wave length in the infrared region of light from about 2.5 to 17 microns or frequency in the range from about 4000cm-1 to 450cm-1. It is a very often used as a 'fingerprint' for identification and QC purposes and can be also used to identify the presence and relative concentration of molecules containing specific functional groups. Software packages have been developed which allow the determination of used oil parameters (ie; soot, fuel dilution, oxidative product buildup etc.). In all cases where possible it is best to establish a baseline with known or unused material.
"Friction Analysis by Tapered Roller Bearing"
This is a proprietary method developed by Petro-Lubricant Test Labs. This test uses a tapered roller bearing, Timken #LM-11949/11910, with the loading and measuring systems of the ASTM D-2266 Four Ball Wear tester. The lubricated bearing is run under prescribed load, speed, and temperature conditions. The resulting torque against the bearing is related to the drag of the lubricant on the rolling elements. This friction 'coefficient' is a relative measure of the smoothness to be expected between different lubricants running under the same conditions. Contact us directly for more information.
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